Technical

WHY 3 PLY COUNTERBALANCED ENGINEERED CONSTRUCTION

The construction of a properly engineered wide-plank serves to counteract the forces that make wood expand and contract across the direction of the grain. A well-engineered wide-plank should consist of a sandwich-like construction of three layers.
KRONA premium-engineered planks are more expensive than either non-engineered solid wood planks or less well-engineered variants. There is a good reason for this: their technical supremacy makes them far more stable. Inferior-quality engineered boards include: unbalanced ply-backed veneers (a wood veneer on top of plywood); planks of two- rather than three-layer construction; top and bottom layers of different wood species; variations in the density of the core material; poorly bonded layers; and inadequate quality control in the precision-machining. Such faults compromise the performance of engineered wood and its stability.

THE WIDE-PLANK BENCHMARK

Krona is renowned throughout the world for the uncompromising engineering standards of its wide-plank wood flooring range. For instance the core, or inner, layer is softwood (not plywood). It is formed from blocks with alternating and opposing grains (blocked), this layer runs at right angles to the two outer layers. Softwood can withstand considerable bending and distortional forces along its grain and resist any dimensional tendency of the outer layers to change as a result of fluctuations in temperature or humidity. This is a painstaking process, but it is necessary to guarantee resistance to any possible warping effects. The two outer layers are no less important.

A typical money-saving measure employed by some manufacturers involves using an inferior timber for the bottom layer of the sandwich-like board in the mistaken belief that, since it is not visible to the eye, a low-grade material will suffice. Nothing could be further from the truth. The top and bottom layers of the engineered flooring must be of the same wood species and in identical dimensions (balanced): crucially, having the same expansion and contraction characteristics allows any stress or strain forces to be cancelled out through the core layer.
The wood-engineering technique used in the construction of an KRONA wide-plank is internationally recognized as the industry benchmark.

CARING FOR PARQUET

As it is a natural material, wood reacts to changes in ambient conditions.

An r.a.h. (relative air humidity) of 40% to 60% represents an ideal environment for timber floors.

In winter, artificial room heating tends to make the flooring shrink, which can lead to splitting.

Use special humidifiers to prevent the air in the rooms becoming too dry.

Hygrometers and thermometers should also be used to keep an eye on room conditions.

Caring for a pre-finished parquet involves just a few simple rules. Use a broom or vacuum cleaner for daily cleaning, and stains should be removed with a damp cloth.

Only ever use the recommended cleaners, NEVER ammonia-based products.

Room temperature should be kept at 18-22°, with a relative humidity of 40-60%; this environment is the key to your parquet’s long life and good condition.

We also recommend the use of an air humidifier.

Wear is an inevitable characteristic of a living material such as wood but, over time, it actually contributes to the floor’s beauty by creating a ‘lived in’ feel.

Accidental damage can be avoided by sticking felt pads onto the base of chair legs and any other furniture that is often moved around.

Areas which are most frequently walked over, such as doorways and hallways, can be protected with rugs; flower and plant pots should be provided with suitable bases to prevent water spilling out of them.

The use of quality finishing materials and suitable care products will help to keep the parquet looking good over a long lifetime.

SUBFLOOR/SCREED

Sub-floors:

Having the best sub-floor means achieving the best results in creating a timber floor.

Screed:

The screed, or generally the load-bearing layer, constitutes the support which must give adequate resistance to the various mechanical stresses imparted by the floor itself and the floor in use, like static and dynamic loads. The screed is always laid on a vapour membrane (on upper levels) or on a vapour barrier (on ground floors or above basements) for insulation. The screed must be gapped and separated from the walls (perimeter joints) by suitable strips of compressible material.

To lay the timber floor the screed must have the following characteristics:
compactness in its full thickness
sufficient and constant thickness (5-7 mm cement screed; 3-5 mm anhydrite screed).
inflexibility, especially in areas where pipes pass below
protection against water seepage and formation of condensation
hard surface
absence of live cracks and fissures
dimensions, planarity and horizontal position
level of surface texture
cleanness
moisture content of laying level and walls (1.7% by weight for the cement screed; 3% by weight for the anhydrite screed).

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

Rev.01.01.2015

Full-surface gluing with Stauf products OR Sika products only

For a successful result it is important to install the floor correctly and to use the products mentioned here in accordance with the instructions. We therefore recommend having a floor specialist install the floor. We also recommend that you carry out on-site tests to ensure that the products are appropriate for the purpose. We recommend that you follow the NWFA job site conditions requirements throughout the project.

Important conditions prior to installation

Building

  • The building must be dry and free of construction humidity in accordance with the NWFA Job Site conditions. Never have the floor planks delivered until the building is sealed, dry and warm, and the humidity levels are under control. If material is accepted on to a job site when the project is not 100% sealed and controlled, this cancels the warranty.
  • The temperature must be between 18 and 25 °C.
  • The air humidity must be between 35 and 65% RH and must not exceed 50% RH in winter. A hygrometer that records data should be in every room.
  • Ensure documentation of the moisture content in the subfloor, as concrete moisture may harm wooden flooring.
  • Concrete moisture must not exceed 85% RH, and a vapor barrier must be used. If you leave out the vapor barrier, the residual moisture content must be less than 65% RH. NB: 85% RH corresponds to approximately 2.0 CM depending on the type of concrete etc. Be aware of any restrictions in the national standard requirements and be sure to follow all NWFA requirements.
  • For the vapor barrier, use at least 0.20 mm PE foil or similar or Sika Primer MB.
  • The substructure must be straight with a maximum deviation of 2 mm, measured across a 2-metre straightedge.

Installation

  • Carry the planks inside immediately after delivery; do not leave them outside or in a garage under any circumstances.
  • Install the planks when the material has acclimated in accordance to the NWFA wood acclimation procedures. Planks should be placed in the room in which they are going to be installed for approximately 2-10 days prior to the installation. Time of acclimation depends on the environmental conditions.
  • Pay attention to color, knots and grain when you install the floor so the individual planks are placed in a way that produces an overall harmonious appearance.
  • Knock the floor planks closely together, unless future humidity conditions will cause the planks to absorb moisture (contact KRONA USA for additional advice on this issue). Use a tapping block, approximately 1 meter, and a large, heavy hammer to drive the floor planks together.
  • Always leave a gap of 10-15 mm between the wood flooring and walls, pipes etc. Remove the spacer blocks once the floor is installed.
  • Never apply glue to the long sides of floor planks.
  • Always sand unfinished floors before finishing.
  • If the floor is not sanded and finished immediately after it is installed, cover it well. Keep the surface clean and free of nails, screws, wooden blocks etc. that might dent the floor.
  • Keep an eye on temperature and air humidity. If the planks are stored at an air humidity above 50% RH, they will absorb moisture and thus become wider. This will result in larger contraction gaps than normal.
  • Only use recommended products or products approved by KRONA USA for surface finishing and maintenance as alternative products can cause unfortunate consequential damages.
  • If underfloor heating has been cast into the concrete layer, the underfloor heating must be turned on at an acceptable temperature for at least 30 days before the planks are installed.
  • KRONA USA does not accept claims concerning the appearance of individual planks once the floor has been installed.
  • KRONA USA does not accept claims concerning damage due to construction humidity.

Natural material

Wood is a natural material that expands and contracts continually, depending on the relative air humidity and temperature. If the indoor climate remains completely stable throughout the year, the planks will remain dimensionally stable, neither expanding nor contracting. That is, however, very difficult to achieve, even with expensive climate systems. Therefore, periodical contraction gaps should be accepted as the floor planks respond to the changing seasons. The movements of the planks will usually be most pronounced during the first year after installation. If the wood is unable to expand it will compress. The subsequent drying will then cause the plank to contract beyond the initial dimension. This may result in slightly larger contraction gaps between the planks than initially. Our material is the most highly sophisticated and most stable wide plank flooring in the world. 70% more stable than solid material. However, this does not mean the material will not move it can and it will because it cause it still is wood. This also does not mean one can cut corners during the acclimation and installation process.

Below is an overview of the reaction of the floor planks to varying degrees of air humidity at a normal temperature of 18-25 °C.

The overview applies to a correctly installed floor, cf. the guidelines in this and the other instructions from Krona USA, and the information is only intended as a general guide.

Climate condition Reaction
60-70 % RH Slight transverse warping should be expected
50-60 % RH No contraction gaps, slight warping should be expected
40-50 % RH The floor planks are stable and level
30-40 % RH Moderate contraction gaps (approximately 1% of plank width) and slight warping should be expected
20-30 % RH Contraction gaps of 1% of the width or more and moderate transverse warping should be expected. There will also be minor drying cracks
< 20 % RH More pronounced transverse warping and drying cracks will appear. The floor will be depleted, and the lifetime of the planks will be reduced

 

The Installation

Before the floor is installed, make sure that the general conditions in the building are under control and in accordance with The NWFA and adhesive manufacturer. If there is ever a conflict between the two, it is your responsibility to contact and resolve the conflict.
The air humidity must be between 35 and 65% RH and must not exceed 50% RH in winter. The temperature must be between 18 and 25° C.
The substructure must be straight with a maximum deviation of 2 mm measured across a 2-metre straightedge.
For all substructures, Krona's recommendations about humidity apply.

For cast substructures:

  • Moisture content must not exceed 85% RH. NB: 85% RH corresponds to approximately 2.0 CM depending on the type of concrete etc. Be aware of any restrictions in the national standard requirements and in accordance to the NWFA.
  • We recommend using STAUF VPU-155 S primer
  • We recommend using Sika MB-Primer

For anhydrite substructures:

  • Moisture content must not exceed 65% RH
  • Do not use STAUF VPU-155 S primer or Sika MB Primer
  • Contact Stauf or Sika for further advice

For plywood and chipboard substructures:

  • Make sure that the sheet/board and its surface is suitable for the purpose and a minimum ¾” thick
  • Moisture content must not exceed 8-10%. In addition, follow the NWFA’s general requirements for humidity and climate
  • Check that the glue bonds correctly to the surface
  • Contact Stauf or Sika for further advice
  • Always full spread

Other substructures:

  • Contact Stauf or Sika for further advice

If underfloor heating has been cast into the concrete layer, the underfloor heating must be turned on at an acceptable temperature for at least 30 days before the planks are installed. With underfloor heating, make sure to turn the heat off at least 24 hours before gluing. Do not turn on the heat until 7 days after the floor has been glued. Turn up the heat slowly, following always follow the NWFA’s before installation instructions.
Use STAUF VPU-155 S primer and STAUF PUK 455 glue or use Sika MB-Primer and Sika Bond T-55. Follow manufacturer’s and Europa Woods’s instructions carefully with regard to:

  • Climate conditions
  • Grade, evenness and moisture content of the substructure
  • Use of tools
  • Drying times for filler, primer, mastic etc.
  • Mounting and curing times for primer and glue

In addition, always follow Krona's instructions generally.

1.1.1 Approval of substructure
Before installing the floor, check that the cast substructure lives up to the relevant guidelines. The substructure must be resistant to pressure and tension, free of cracks, have sufficient surface strength and be permanently dry, level, clean and free of anti-adherents, sinter layers etc.
Also check the porosity and grip of the surface as well as the moisture content, room temperature, air humidity and substructure temperature. The substructure must be permanently dry. Floors with residual moisture (max. 85% RH) require a vapor barrier. To create a vapor barrier, use STAUF VPU-155 S primer or Sika MB Primer.

  • Note that the drying process is slow. It can take several months before the substructure is dry enough. We strongly recommend that you perform a destructive test of the cast substructure to check the residual moisture content before applying the recommended primer. If you are using measuring methods and units for residual moisture content that deviate from national traditions and standards, contact Stauf, Sika or Krona for thorough information. Concrete moisture can and will harm the wooden floor.

1.1.2 Preparation of substructure
Before installing the floor, it is necessary to prepare the substructure. The surface must be clean, have sufficient surface strength and be level, permanently dry and free of cracks. Depending on the type and condition of the substructure, it may be necessary to prepare the substructure by mechanical means (mechanical brushing, sanding, levelling).
Construction joints, expansion joints and other joints must be closed with appropriate elastic material. Cavities and dents can be filled with appropriate levelling compound from Stauf. Contact Stauf for further advice.

1.1.3 Application of STAUF VPU-155 S primer or Sika MB Primer
To create a vapour barrier with the primer, carry out the following process:

  1. Apply 150 g/m² primer as a first coat with a mohair roller. Make sure to apply the primer evenly, and avoid large concentrations in one place. Alternatively, you may use a foam roller, a brush or a smooth blade.
  2. Allow the primer to dry for at least 45 minutes.
  3. Apply 250 g/m² using the same procedure but moving perpendicular to the direction of the first layer.
  4. Allow the primer to dry for at least 3 hours before installing Krona's planks.
  5. Check and approve the surface before installing the planks.
  6. Always consult with manufacturer to confirm proper application procedures for these may have changed.
  • Note that the drying times stated below apply when air humidity and temperature stay within 40 and 50% RH and 18 and 22 ºC.

The planks must be installed within 48 hours after the application of the primer. If this timeframe is exceeded, sand the surface thoroughly, and apply a new, thin layer of STAUF VPU-155 S primer or Sika MB Primer, using 100 g/m².

1.1.4 Application of STAUF PUK 455 glue or Sika T-55 glue
After preparing the substructure and applying the primer, apply STAUF PUK 455 or Sika T-55 glue with their recommended notched trowel. Follow manufacturers cover rate per pale and use their recommended trowel.

Make sure to apply enough glue for the planks to bond fully with the substructure. This takes 1400-1600 g/m². The glue is fully cured after 48 hours.
Rake the notched trowel evenly over the adhesive layer to avoid large concentrations of glue in one place or too thick layers. Install the planks within the primer’s timeframe by sliding the planks in and pressing down firmly. Pay attention to the mounting time of the glue.

General installation

Install the planks immediately, except in winter when the planks should be placed in the room in which they are going to be installed for 24-48 hours prior to the installation.
Do not combine full-surface gluing with other installation methods. Only glue the planks themselves to the substructure.

  • Never apply glue to the long sides of floor planks!

It is recommended to use temporary fixing straps to keep the joints tight and hold the planks in place while the glue cures. Make sure not to damage the edges of the planks when applying the straps. To ensure a straight line for the rest of the floor, it is recommended that you install 3-4 rows, allow the glue to dry and then install the rest of the floor.
Apply weights on the planks during the curing period to ensure sufficient pressure across the entire floor. Place 15 kg sand bags, buckets with sand or similar weights on top of the planks. Distribute them evenly with approximately one load per m2 until the glue has cured. The areas along the edges of the floor and the last installed rows are particularly important. The floor should not be used until the glue has cured.
Sanding and finishing should not be performed until at least 48 hours after the full-surface gluing.

1.4 Advice
A Krona floor is a unique piece of nature. It is a living material which should be treated with care. Our instructions explain in detail how you get the best result so the floor can last for centuries.
These instructions cannot stand alone. For additional information, we refer you to the general instructions from Krona and Stauf. If you need additional advice about Krona floors, you are very welcome to contact us. To order and purchase products for maintenance, please go to www.kronausa.com. 
Please note that we can only offer advice about our own product, and thus, any additional advice lies outside the service we offer. Other building components and products require a degree of knowledge and insight that makes it necessary to seek advice from a specialist. As we have no control over the actual quality of workmanship, materials used and worksite conditions, these written instructions do not constitute an implied warranty of any kind. The illustrations in this document are strictly intended as a guide.
 
We do not accept any liability for printing errors.

Click here to download PDF instructions

Contact Information: Krona USA 888-995-7662   Stauf Adhesives   Sika Adhesive   NWFA   NWFA Certified Installer

US PURCHASE AGREEMENT

PURCHASER has reviewed and accepts estimate, bid or sales order and agrees to the terms and conditions set forth below. This estimate is valid for 30 days & is based on current information. All bids are made on the assumption that the sub‐floor for the project is solid, level & in good condition. KRONA USA shall have clear access to the work areas & all work areas broom cleaned and ready for the floor layers and/or finishers when they arrive. Unless explicitly specified otherwise, this contract DOES NOT include sub‐floor preparation. Additional labor or materials necessitated by job conditions at the time of installation will be billed on a time & materials basis and can delay the job.

KRONA USA requires a 100% materials deposit prior to placing all orders. Payment for installation/finish: 100% balance due 15 days after completion of installation/finish. However, if install and finish are not done during the same period, 100% installation is due 15 days after installation and 100% finish is due 15 days after finishing is complete. Invoices not paid within terms will be assessed a late fee of 1.5% per month or an annual rate of 18% on the unpaid balances together with all costs and reasonable attorney’s fees required for the collection of the unpaid balances. PURCHASER also agrees to pay any additional costs of collection including attorney’s fees.

PURCHASER understands that any changes which may be made to the agreed upon plans and specifications may result in   additional costs for labor, materials or both. PURCHASER agrees to pay such additional costs upon presentation of billing by KRONA USA. BOTH PARTIES agree no modification to this contract shall be enforceable unless it is in writing and signed by both parties. All prices that are based on plans or measurement provided by PURCHASER are subject to increase in the event of any inaccuracies or changes therein. All quantities, measurements and waste factors in this proposal must be carefully reviewed and, if necessary, increased or decreased according to PURCHASER’S specifications.

Wood is a natural product created from a living tree which is naturally inconsistent. PURCHASER understands flooring products are subject to: shade or dye lot variations from our display samples. We do not guarantee absolute resemblance to the original sample. Stain will absorb differently on heavy and open grained sections of the wood. Color changes over time due to the effect of the sun.

PURCHASER understands the installation site should have a relative humidity of 35% ‐ 55% prior to delivery, during & after installation of any wood flooring. If these conditions are not maintained all warranties will be void. Depending on the final finish used on the wood flooring, PURCHASER must ensure that the proper cleaning and maintenance solutions are being used or all warranties will be void. We are not responsible for indentations, scratches, stains or damage caused by negligence, moisture, excessive heat or dryness, abrasives, pets, insects, spiked heels etc.

PURCHASER understands that in‐floor‐radiant heating systems must be 100% functional with working thermostats before the  wood flooring installation begins. The surface temperature of wood flooring should never be hotter than 82°F per our manufacturers. Warranties, if any, are voided by overheating of the floor. This is the Contractor’s or Purchaser’s responsibility.

KRONA USA uses professional installers & finishers who will leave the job site in standard condition. As with all construction projects there will be dust etc., which may require a construction clean which will be the owner's responsibility. PURCHASER accepts responsibility for materials delivered to job site in good order by KRONA USA or its suppliers and agrees to provide protection against theft and damage from the elements. KRONA USA will not be held responsible for damages or loss to property during installation/delivery when other trades are working on site.

Click here to download purchase agreement PDF

US GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS

KRONA USA LLC  CONTRACT FOR SALE OF GOODS & GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS

All bids are made on the assumption that the sub-floor for the project is solid, level and in good condition. If unexpected pre-work is discovered with the sub-floor before the installation of your new floor, the owner or responsible party will be informed and a Change Order will be issued.

TermsIN STOCK ORDERS: 100% deposit for material will be due when Krona USA has the material in stock and pulls from the inventory to reserve for a job. 100% payment for material will be due before pickup, shipment or delivery to client. When ordering material that will take some time, 60% deposit for material is required upon order, remaining balance for material will be due upon date material arrives at Krona USA or other locations. Payment for installation/finish: 50% deposit, balance due 15 days after completion of installation.
Storage charges due to construction delays will be billed at the rate of $50.00 per pallet per month after 30 days. If order is a direct shipment, final payment will be due when order is in customs and shipment will not proceed without 100% payment.
PURCHASER understands that any changes which may be made to the agreed upon plans and specifications may result in additional costs for labor, material or both.
PURCHASER agrees to pay such additional costs upon presentation of billing by Krona USA.

BOTH PARTIES agree NO modification to this contract shall be enforceable unless it is in writing and signed by both parties.

All prices that are based on plans or measurement provided by PURCHASER are subject to increase in the event of any inaccuracies or changes therein. All quantities, measurements and waste factors in this proposal must be carefully reviewed and, if necessary, increased or decreased according to contractor’s specifications.

Invoices not paid within terms will be assessed a late fee of 1.5% per month or an annual rate of 18% on the unpaid balances together with all costs and reasonable attorneys fees required for the collection of the unpaid balances. PURCHASER agrees: (i) to remove all furniture, fixtures and appliances so that Krona USA shall have clear access to the work areas; (ii) to have all work areas broom cleaned and ready for the floor layers and/or finishers when they arrive. Unless explicitly specified otherwise, this contract DOES NOT include sub-floor preparation.

PURCHASER accepts responsibility for materials delivered to job site in good order by KRONA USA or its suppliers and agrees to provide protection against theft and damage from the elements.

PURCHASER understands that in-floor-radiant heating systems must be 100% functional with working thermostats before the wood flooring installation begins. The surface temperature of wood flooring should never be hotter than 82°F per our manufacturers. Warranties, if any, are voided by overheating of the floor.

For installation of raw wood flooring – the in-floor-radiant heat must be turned off until the installation of the wood flooring has been finished. This is the Contractor’s or Purchaser’s responsibility. Wood is a natural gift of nature. You should expect the following:

  • Color variations and grain patterns will vary from samples or pictures Expect a beautiful and natural inconsistency that was created in a living tree.
  • If you’ve chosen to stain your wood it will absorb differently on heavy and open grained sections of the
  • Color changes due to the effects of ultra violet rays from the Typically, it will attain a more golden color.
  • Hardwoods will hold up well to normal usage but will indent under high-heel traffic and other unusual

PURCHASER must understand that the Natural Hardwax and Natural Oil finishes require regular maintenance and specific cleaning solutions. A lower maintenance option of polyurethane finish is also available. Please contact Krona to understand Flooring in a Cold and Dry Climate and the Care and Maintenance instructions.

Before PROTECTION: A walk through with Krona USA and on-site supervisor to sign off on wood flooring is required.

PURCHASER hereby releases Krona USA and its employees, owners, agents, officers, and directors from all liability or damages resulting from any and all work performed on the premises after the walk-through, including, but not limited to: painting, dry-walling, construction, moving furniture or appliances, and other various activities that could affect a new wood floor. Protecting of wood flooring is not included (except otherwise agreed to). If protection is included in your estimate, it is for one time covering of the floor with protection only and not ongoing maintenance of the protection during construction.

Limited Warranty: Krona USA agrees to furnish the materials specified in the contract and to complete all work called for in a professional and workmanlike manner, according to standard practice in the industry. Krona USA disclaims any and all other warranties, whether express or implied by operation of law or otherwise, regarding its labor.

PURCHASER understands, acknowledges, and agrees that the only warranty provided to PURCHASER with regard toproducts and materials is the express warranty from the manufacturer (the “Manufacturer’s Warranty”), which is attached hereto and by this reference incorporated herein, and that there is no warranty whatsoever from Krona USA for anyflooring, finish, or other product or materials supplied under this Agreement. Krona USA hereby expressly disclaims any and all warranties, whether express or implied by operation of law or otherwise, including without limitation warranties of merchants ability and fitness for a particular purpose, regarding products or materials.

In addition, Krona makes no warranty (whether express or implied, including any warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose) on any finish applied on the jobsite by other than Krona personnel. If flooring is to be installed or finished by anyone other than Krona personnel, Krona relinquishes responsibility for materials upon delivery to the jobsite or finishing company.

Delay in or Loss of Shipment: In the event of a failure or delay in delivery of the products due to any cause, including Force Majeure, that exceeds 90 days from the anticipated date of delivery, PURCHASER has the right, upon written notice to Krona, to demand immediate repayment of the amount of the Deposit actually paid by PURCHASER to Krona with respect to such shipment and terminate this Agreement. Notwithstanding anything in this Contract or at law or in equity to the contrary, such rights will constitute PURCHASER’s sole recourse or remedy with respect thereto and will constitute Krona's sole liability with respect to such late delivery or failure to deliver such shipment.

Consequential Damages: PURCHASER understands and agrees that in no event shall Krona be liable for incidental or consequential damages or other losses arising out of this Contract or this transaction.

Returns and Cancelled Orders: Once a custom order is placed, it is custom for that project.  No cancellations, quantity reductions or other changes will be accepted.  This order will need to be paid in full. Returns on non-custom orders are only allowed when it is expressly allowed in writing by Krona. If a return is allowed, a restocking fee, return shipment fee and a fee for some portion of the order will be determined by Krona and will be due from the PURCHASER.

Arbitration: The parties hereby agree to submit all controversies, claims and matters of difference arising under this Contract to arbitration. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the following will be considered controversies for this purpose: (a) all questions relating the interpretation, performance, or breach of this Contract, (b) all questions relating to any representations, negotiations and other proceedings leading to the execution hereof, (c) all statutory, common law and other claims arising out of the foregoing, (including all claims relating to and liabilities arising under environmental laws), and (d) all questions as to whether the right to arbitrate any such question exists. Arbitration hereunder will be by one independent and impartial arbitrator in Delaware (as specified by Krona) and will be governed by Delaware law, without regard to Delaware conflicts of law rules. Arbitration will be conducted in accordance with the then-applicable Commercial Arbitration Rules of the American Arbitration Association. The costs of the arbitration, including the fees of the arbitrator, will be borne equally by the parties.

THE PARTIES ACKNOWLEDGE THAT RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES BY MANDATORY BINDING ARBITRATION IS THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY OF THE PARTIES, AND THE PARTIES WAIVE TRIAL BY JURY.

Where a conflict exists between the terms of this contract and any Subcontractor Contract provided from Purchaser, the terms of this contract shall prevail.

Disclaimer: Upon delivery you accept full responsibility for this product. After delivery Krona shall not be responsible for damages, including damages occurring at the job-site, nor does it insure the product.

Thank you for your business!

Agreed to and accepted by PURCHASER as of the date entered below: